Causes of Miscarriage
There are numerous causes of miscarriage some of which
· Chromosomal abnormalities – this result from a sperm or egg that is chromosomally abnormal, abnormal cell division of
the fetus as well as chromosomal abnormalities of mother and or father. A sperm or egg that is chromosomally
abnormal will create a fetus that is genetically abnormal. As a result of this, the woman’s body will reject the
fetus hence a miscarriage. Other chromosomal abnormalities that may result in miscarriage
o Trisomy which occurs when there are 3
chromosomes of one type instead of the usual 2. This means that the resulting embryo will have 47 chromosomes
and is therefore likely to abort or to produce a baby with congenital abnormalities.
o Monosomy which occurs when there is one
chromosome missing. Only 1% of pregnancies with monosomy are likely to survive.
· Gene defects – these may also cause miscarriage although most of them result in more serious problems
like cystic fibrosis.
· Infections – severe infections like rubella and listeria may also result in sporadic
· Uterine abnormalities – there are many such abnormalities that may result in
uterus – some women have a uterus that is abnormally shaped
and this may lead to miscarriage. In such a situation what happens is that the uterus is unable to enlarge
enough to accommodate the pregnancy hence resulting in a miscarriage.
o Fibroids – this often distort the uterine
cavity hence preventing a pregnancy from implanting properly.
incompetence – during pregnancy the cervix is meant to
remain closed until labor begins. However, in some women the cervix is weak and thus opens up quite
painlessly, subsequently leading to the rupture of membranes and therefore expulsion of the fetus.
Miscarriage as a result of cervical incompetence usually occurs in late pregnancy after 16 weeks. Note that
although one could be born with this condition, it may also be as a result of a previous
· Hormonal abnormalities – decreased levels of progesterone could lead to miscarriage as progesterone is a hormone
that is required for a healthy pregnancy to be maintained.
· Immune disorders – if blood clots form between the mother and fetal circulation during pregnancy, then it
may result in miscarriage.
As indicated above, there are various
causes of miscarriage. However, risk factors may also increase chances of miscarriage among pregnant